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“Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day. Teach a man to fish and you feed him for a lifetime.” Chinese Proverb

It’s all about empowerment. At AHCML we believe in empowering our clients by keeping them informed about the different forms and dynamics of investing in the financial markets. Our goal is to equip our clients with the knowledge and insight they require to make intelligent investment decisions. That is what will “feed” them in the long run.

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Jamapunji
SECP Online Complaint Lodge Link
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Bloomberg
Federal Board of Revenue
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Government of Pakistan
Pakistan Stock Exchange Limited
National Clearing Company of Pakistan Limited
National Clearing Company of Pakistan Limited - UIS
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Privatization Commission
Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan (SECP)
Business Recorder
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State Bank of Pakistan
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Guides

What are Shares?
What is the Stock Exchange?
What is the Role of the Stock Exchange?
What are the Different Types of Stock?
How Does Trading Take Place?
What is Settlement? 
What are the Different Trading Segments?
How do you Trade? 
What are the Different Types of Orders?
How Can One Become a Shareholder?
What are the Criteria for Stock Selection?
What are the Different Stock Selection Strategies?
What is the Central Depository Company of Pakistan Limited (CDC) and the Central Depository System (CDS)?
What are the Different Types of Investment Analyses?

 

What are Shares?
Shares represent partial ownership claim in a company.
They give the holder the right to receive dividend distributions and a vote at the company's annual meeting. The shareholders vote to elect the directors of a company who appoint the company's management. The shareholders have specific rights under corporate law and the company's bylaws.
Companies whose shares are " publicly listed " on stock exchanges are required to provide information or "disclosure" to their  shareholders in return for being publicly traded. Common shares are also referred to as "equity securities" or "equities" alluding to the accounting term "Owner's Equity".

 

What is the Stock Exchange?
The stock exchange is a market place where shares are bought and sold.
Once a company has sold shares to the public, the initial buyer can then resell those shares to other buyers. This buying and reselling is done at the stock exchange.

 

What is the Role of the Stock Exchange?
The role of the stock exchange is to bring companies and investors together in one place, such that it provides a market for:

  • Shares of publicly listed companies to be bought and sold
  • Raising capital

Additionally, the exchange is also responsible for monitoring the market to ensure that it is working efficiently, fairly and transparently.

Stock Exchanges in Pakistan
Pakistan has three stock exchanges of which the one in Karachi is the largest:

  • Karachi Stock Exchange (Guarantee) Ltd.
  • Lahore Stock Exchange (Guarantee) Ltd.
  • Islamabad Stock Exchange (Guarantee) Ltd.

 

What are the Different Types of Stock?
Common Stock 
Common stock holders have ownership and enjoy voting rights in the company. However, in the event of bankruptcy, common stock shareholders are entitled to assets left over after creditors, bondholders and preferred shareholders have been paid in full.

Preferred Stock
Preferred stock holders have partial ownership in the company but may not enjoy voting rights like common stock holders. However, they do have other benefits. There are four classes of preferred stocks, outlined below:

1.   Cumulative
Shareholders have the right to accumulate dividend payments that were skipped
 in earlier years. They are the first to receive payments once the company
 resumes dividend payout.

2.   Non Cumulative
Shareholders do not accumulate skipped dividend payments.

3.   Participating
Shareholders receive more than the normal dividend payments if the company makes more than expected profit.

4.   Convertible
Shareholders can convert the preferred stock into a specified number of shares of common stock.

 

How Does Trading Take Place?
Trading takes place in the stock exchange through a computerized system to ensure a fast, fair, efficient, cost effective and transparent trading mechanism.

 

What is Settlement? 
Once a deal has been made, the settlement process transfers stock from the seller to the buyer and arranges the corresponding exchange of  money between buyer and seller.

 

What are the Different Trading Segments?
T+2 Settlement System
Purchase and sale of securities is netted and the balance is settled on the third day following the trade.

Provisionally Listed Counter
The shares of companies, which make a minimum public offering of Rs.100 million, are traded on this segment from the date of publication of the offer documents. When the company completes the process of dispatch/credit of allotted shares to subscribers, it is officially listed and placed on the T+2 counter through the CDC. Trading on the provisionally listed counter then comes to an end and all the outstanding transactions are transferred to the T+2 counter with effect from the date of official listing.

T+1 or Spot Transactions
Spot transactions imply delivery upon payment. In spot transactions, the trade is  generally settled within 24 hours. 

Futures Contract
A futures contract involves the purchase or sale of a financial or tangible asset at  some future date, at a price fixed in the present.

 

How do you Trade? 
Trading involves first selecting a broker, opening an account with the broker and then proceeding to buy/sell shares in the market.

Broker Selection
The first step is to find a stock broker or advisor. Brokers assist you in getting  the best price available when you  want to buy or sell shares. It is important to select an appropriate and experienced broker who is well versed in market practices has knowledge of market trends.

Account Opening
 Following broker selection, the individual must fill out an account opening form. It is imperative that the terms and conditions prescribed in the account opening form are read very carefully and well understood. It is also recommended that the individual specify that business can only be transacted in the account on his/her instructions.

Buying/Selling
When the individual decides to buy/sell shares of a particular company, the stock broker is contacted and asked to buy/sell a particular number of shares up to a certain value. Following this, a contract note is received which contains important information listed below: 

  • Name and number of securities
  • Date on which the order is executed
  • Nature of transaction (spot, ready or forward and also whether bought or sold)
  • Price at which transaction is executed
  • Commission charged by broker

 

What are the Different Types of Orders?
Market Order
Order executed at the prevailing market rate

Limit Order
The individual specifies the price at which the order should be executed. It defines the highest price which the individual is willing to pay when buying and the lowest price which the individual is willing to accept when selling

Stop Loss Order
This provides a method of protecting the investment when the price falls. Stop loss orders are applicable to selling, where the order price is set lower than the current market value and the order is triggered when the stock price falls

 

How Can One Become a Shareholder?
Initial Public Offering (IPO)
When companies offer stock to the general public for the first time, it is called a flotation or IPO. These shares can be bought directly from the company without using the services of a broker. For example, investors may see an advertisement in a newspaper from a company issuing shares. The investor has to simply fill in the share subscription form and deposit the form along with a cheque for the subscription amount in a branch of the designated bank(s) for the IPO.

Right Issue
Right shares are issued when companies need to raise additional capital to finance their new expansion projects or to meet working capital needs, etc. In case of rights issues, the existing investors have the right to subscribe to these new shares in proportion to their respective shareholding.

Trading Market
The most common way of becoming a shareholder is by buying shares through trading in the secondary market. Through a broker, an investor can buy shares from existing investors who wish to sell them.

 

What are the Criteria for Stock Selection?
Following are some criteria worth evaluating when selecting stocks: 

  • Earnings growth
  • Price/Earnings (P/E) ratio
  • Dividend yield
  • Market capitalization
  • Relative strength
  • Sector analysis
  • Research analysis
  • Annual report analysis

 

What are the Different Stock Selection Strategies?
Several stock selection strategies can be employed. A few of them are mentioned below:

Buy and Hold
The buy and hold principle rests on the assumption that in the long term, stock prices and the market as a whole will rise, despite short term intermediary fluctuations.

Market Timing
Market timing employs an opportunistic strategy which suggests that it is sensible to buy when the market is low and sell when it is high in order to maximize profit

Growth
The growth strategy maintains that companies with high earnings growth are able to pay high dividends to the investors and will do well in the long run

Value
Value investing focuses on traditional valuation metrics such as the P/E ratio

Income
Income investors buy stocks that pay the highest dividends. They focus primarily on securing a steady income stream instead of pursuing capital gains

 

What is the Central Depository Company of Pakistan Limited (CDC) and the Central Depository System (CDS)?
The purpose of the CDC is to operate as a central securities depository on behalf of the financial services industry in order to contribute to the country's ability to support an effective capital market system, which will attract institutional and retail investors, both local and foreign.

The CDC was incorporated in 1993 to manage and operate the CDS. 

CDS is an electronic book entry system used to record and transfer securities.

Electronic book entry means that the securities do not physically change hands; rather,  the transfer from one client account to another takes place electronically.

With the launch of CDS, paper based settlement has been eliminated resulting in the reduction of workload and manpower, speedy transfer of ownership and reduction in  risk of damaged, lost, forged or duplicate certificates.

 

What are the Different Types of Investment Analyses?
Fundamental Analysis
The value of a security is evaluated by studying the financial data of the issuer. Focusing on the business  fundamentals, it analyses the assets, liabilities, expenses along with the management and position of the issuer in the industry. Fundamental analysis is useful for a long-term investor looking for companies with solid foundation, growth and income potential, or for a short-term investor looking for  companies that are on the verge of being discovered.

Technical Analysis
The value of a security is evaluated by studying market statistics. Unlike fundamental analysis, technical analysis disregards the issuer’s financial statements, focusing more on the market trends which include the upward or bullish trend and downward or bearish trend. Technical analysis is useful for a long-term investor who is not as concerned about one company's fundamentals because he or she will diversify to minimize risk, or for a short-term investor who is waiting for investor sentiment to change.

 

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